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The drive phase is the first phase of the 100m dash. This is primary the longest phase of the four. This phase should last for about 3-5 seconds. The athlete’s posture should have a forward lean of 45°. The athlete should be making ground contact behind their hips in a pushing manner. In this phase most beginning athletes will tend to bend over at the waist, thinking they are leaning. When in fact they are just running bent over. The athlete should lean at the ankles and not at the waist. By leaning at the ankles, the athlete will be in the proper angle to accelerate quickly and will be able to push force behind there center of gravity.
The Transition Phase
The next phase of the 100m dash is the transition phase. The transition phase could last anywhere from 1-3 seconds. The purpose of the transition phase is to allow the sprinter to gradually transition from the drive phase into the max velocity phase. In order to transition from the drive phase into the max velocity phase, the athlete will need to lift their posture of the drive phase (45°) to an upright position. This change in posture should be gradual and not immediate.
The Max Velocity Phase
The third phase of the 100 meter dash is the Max Velocity phase. In this phase the athlete should be in the upright position. The athlete should be stepping over the opposite knee with their heel. When the heel is stepping over the opposite knee, this will allow the athlete to float and maintain their top speed that was accomplished during the drive phase. This phase will last for another 1-3 seconds. If the athlete is not stepping over the opposite knee, the athletes’ speed will begin to decelerate rapidly. Thus bringing us to the final phase of the 100m.
The Deceleration Phase
The deceleration phase is the last phase of the 100 meter dash. In this phase the athlete has already reached max speed and cannot maintain top speed any longer. The purpose of this phase is to slow down the rate of deceleration in the runner. To achieve this, the sprinter must run as if they were running on hot coals. Ground contact time should be short, with the heels stepping over the opposite knee. By running with hot feet, the runner should decelerate at a slower rate than other runners who are not running with deceleration mechanics.
The 100m dash is a very exciting race to watch and also to compete in. If an athlete wants to be competitive in the 100m race, the athlete must learn and master the four different phases of the event. Again, these phases are the drive phase, transition phase, max velocity phase and the deceleration phase. All four phases must be mastered.
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