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Seabuckthorn (SBT) seed oil is a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, carotenoids and flavonoids, which are known to have significant anti-atherogenic and cardioprotective activity. The anti-atherogenic activity of supercritical CO(2) extracted SBT seed oil was evaluated in white albino rabbits fed on high cholesterol diet for 60 days. The study was performed on 20 male healthy rabbits divided into four groups of 5 animals each. Group I - control, group II - SBT seed oil, group III - cholesterol (1%) for 60 days, group IV - cholesterol+SBT seed oil. After 30 days of high cholesterol diet, group IV rabbits received 1 ml of SBT seed oil daily for 30 days. Blood total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured before and after the administration of SBT seed oil. The vasorelaxant activity of the seed oil was studied in vitro using aortic ring model technique and changes in isometric force were recorded using a polygraphic recording system. Accumulation of cholesterol in the aorta was studied using Sudan-IV staining technique. SBT seed oil feeding to normal rabbits for 18 days caused a significant decline in plasma cholesterol, LDL-C, atherogenic index (AI) and LDL/HDL ratio. The HDL-C levels, HDL-C/TC ratio (HTR) and vasorelaxant activity of the aorta were significantly increased. In cholesterol-fed animals the TC, TG, LDL-C and AI were significantly increased and showed a decline following seed oil administration. The increase in HDL-C was more marked in seed oil treated hypercholesterolemic animals. The acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxant activity was significantly decreased in cholesterol-fed animals and could be restored to that of normal values by seed oil administration. These observations suggest that supercritical CO(2) extracted SBT seed oil has significant anti-atherogenic and cardioprotective activity.